Esophageal Stenting

Esophageal stents are widely used to treat a variety of problems, most commonly malignant dysphagia. Malignant dysphagia can be present in patients with unresectable, resectable, and potentially resectable cancer. Esophageal stents are also utilized to treat esophageal strictures, fistulas, perforations, and leaks. Stent placement usually requires both endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidances, but can be done with either modality safely. Most stents are placed distally and across the gastroesophageal junction, but proximal stent placement (which requires more precise placement) can also be performed. Complications include bleeding and perforation (which are rare) as well as migration, tumor overgrowth, and tumor ingrowth (which are more common).